Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are diseases which affect the myoskeletal system and often occur in older adults. They are characterized by low bone density and loss of muscle mass and strength, factors which reduce the quality of life and mobility. Recently, apart from pharmaceutical interventions, many studies have focused on non-pharmaceutical approaches for the prevention of osteoporosis and sarcopenia with exercise and nutrition to being the most important and well studied of those. The purpose of the current narrative review is to describe the role of exercise and nutrition on prevention of osteoporosis and sarcopenia in older adults and to define the incidence of osteosarcopenia. Most of the publications which were included in this review show that resistance and endurance exercises prevent the development of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Furthermore, protein and vitamin D intake, as well as a healthy diet, present a protective role against the development of the above bone diseases. However, current scientific data are not sufficient for reaching solid conclusions. Although the roles of exercise and nutrition on osteoporosis and sarcopenia seem to have been largely evaluated in literature over the recent years, most of the studies which have been conducted present high heterogeneity and small sample sizes. Therefore, they cannot reach final conclusions. In addition, osteosarcopenia seems to be caused by the effects of osteoporosis and sarcopenia on elderly. Larger meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials are needed designed based on strict inclusion criteria, in order to describe the exact role of exercise and nutrition on osteoporosis and sarcopenia.
Keywords: osteosarcopenia, osteoporosis, exercise, vitamin D, calcium
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